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The meeting will broadly focus on innovative chemical technologies that have deepened our "Tying up the Ends: Managing ssDNA at Telomeres". Pan Afr Med J. ; Low birth weight (LBW) is birth of a live infant less than g (up to and including g) irrespective of. BM meet-up 'Semantics and Cultural Heritage', London, Kardas, P., Beck 39th National Pan-Hellenic Medical Conference, Athens, Greece, May 25, Sakkalis, V. (). Tollis, I.G. (). Vertex Ordering in Graph Drawing .
LBW is mainly as a result of preterm birth before 37 weeks gestation or due to restricted intrauterine growth [ 2 ].
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According to WHO technical consultation report on promoting optimal fetal development, birth weight of an infant is dependent on amount of growth during pregnancy and the gestational age, and these factors are related to the genetic make-up of the infant and the mother, her lifestyle and her status of health [ 3 ]. The global prevalence of LBW is Half of all low birth weight babies are born in South-central Asia where 27 percent are below g at birth while LBW levels in sub-Saharan Africa are estimated at 15 percent [ 1 ].
Most of the babies in Africa are at risk of being born preterm. The situation is different for South Asia where the rate of LBW is almost twice that of Africa but majority of the LBW babies are term babies who are small for gestational age.
Preterm babies have a higher risk of death compared to full term babies [ 4 ]. The fourth Millennium Development Goal of the United Nations targets to reduce child mortality by two-thirds from to The under-five mortality and the infant mortality rates are the two indicators used to monitor this goal. The global under five mortality dropped by 47 percent from an estimated 90 to 48 deaths per live births between and Neonatal mortality declined from 33 per to 21 per live births over the same period.
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Although these indicators have shown a declining trend, the highest burden and the least improvement was observed in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to other regions of the world [ 5 ]. Neonatal mortality accounts for 40 percent of all deaths among children less than five years.
Seventy-five percent occur during the first week of life, and between 25 to 45 percent occur within the first 24 hours. Preterm birth is the most common direct cause of newborn mortality.New Shuffle Meetup
Preterm birth and being Small for Gestational Age SGA which are the reasons for low birth weight are important indirect causes of neonatal deaths. Low birth weight contributes 60 to 80 percent of all neonatal deaths [ 1 ]. There is substantial variation among regions on these three main causes. Low birth weight underlies majority of these deaths and links to maternal health, nutrition and infections such as Malaria and HIV. LBW is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya.
The current trends of infant and under five mortality rates in Kenya are declining.
The recorded decline of the infant and under five mortality is an indicator of progress in achieving the 4th millennium development goal [ 7 ]. However, neonatal mortality recorded a marginal decline compared to the other child health indicators.
Addressing challenges associated with newborn deaths in Kenya has the greatest potential of contributing to this progress. A number of factors have been identified to influence LBW. Exposure to environmental pollutants including organophosphate pesticides have also been significantly associated with low birth weight deliveries. A study in Jimma zone South West Ethiopia found the following factors to be significantly associated with low birth weight.
Mothers living in urban areas were found to be more likely to deliver low birth weights compared to their rural counterparts.
The study related the association with urban residence to social lifestyles like heavy cigarette smoking and alcohol intake. Mothers who had experienced weight loss and those who had not had additional food during pregnancy had a significant increased risk of delivering low birth weight babies.
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Other factors including religion, ethnicity, history of a sexually transmitted infection, engaging in heavy work during pregnancy and history of chronic illness did not show any association [ 10 ].
In the same study unmarried mothers were found to be more likely to give birth to low birth weights compared to their married counterparts. Pregnancy and labor complications and illness during pregnancy were also significantly associated with low birth weight infants. These included; hypertension, pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia disease complex, bleeding, placenta praevia, abruption placenta, premature rupture of membranes, anemia, Tuberculosis and Malaria in pregnancy.
HIV positive women were twice more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than HIV negative ones [ 11 ]. The HIV positive status also concurred with findings in a referral hospital in North West Ethiopia where HIV positive women were 3 times more likely to give birth to low birth weight infants than HIV negative ones [ 12 ].
In Kenya, factors documented to have significant influence on LBW can be summarized in two broad categories. The final version of the thesis is available here: The underlying problem discussed in the thesis is best explained using a game on a bispanning graph.
You play Alice's role and want to flip the colors of all edges in the graph. Bob will try to prevent this from happening. In addition to the thesis itself, the source code of the accompanying computer program is also available.
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It was used while preparing the thesis to calculate exchanges graphs and to test many hypothesis about bispanning graphs. The program can enumerate all bispanning graphs and their exchange graphs for small numbers of vertices. See the program page for downloadable lists and PDFs of all bispanning graphs for small numbers of vertices. Abstract Bispanning graphs are undirected graphs with an edge set that can be decomposed into two disjoint spanning trees.
The operation of symmetrically swapping two edges between the trees, such that the result is a different pair of disjoint spanning trees, is called an edge exchange or a symmetric base exchange. The graph of symmetric base exchanges of a bispanning graph contains a vertex for every valid pair of disjoint spanning trees, and edges between them to represent all possible edge exchanges.
We are interested in a restriction of these graphs to only unique symmetric base exchanges, which are edge exchanges wherein selecting one edge leaves only one choice for selecting the other.
In this thesis, we discuss the structure of the graph of unique symmetric edge exchanges, and the open question whether these are connected for all bispanning graphs.
This abstract problem can be nicely rephrased into a coloring game with two players: Alice and Bob are given a bispanning graph colored with two disjoint spanning trees, and Alice gets to flip the color of any edge. This creates a cycle in one color and a cut in the other, and Bob must then flip a different edge to repair the constraint that both colors represent disjoint spanning trees.
Alice's objective is to invert the color of all edges in the graph, and Bob's to prevent this.
We are interested in whether Alice can find a sequence of unique edge exchanges for any bispanning graph, since these leave Bob no choice in which edge to select, hence allowing Alice to win with certainty. In this thesis, we first define and discuss the properties of bispanning graphs in depth. Intuitively, these are locally dense enough to allow the two disjoint spanning trees to reach all vertices, but sparse enough such that disjoint edge sets do not contain cycles.
The whole class of bispanning graphs can be inductively constructed using only two operations, which makes the class tractable for inductive proofs.
We then describe in detail directed, undirected, and simplified versions of edge exchange graphs, first with unrestricted edge exchanges, and then with the restriction to unique symmetric base exchanges.