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However, covered by the severe physical disability, the post-stroke cognitive impairment is likely to be ignored. In the past, the researchers identified the dementia after stroke as the vascular dementia 4.
But not all stroke survivors who suffer from the cognitive decline meet the criteria of the dementia.
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According to Nys et al. These patients with the cognitive impairment could be divided according to the degree of the cognitive decline into the mild cognitive impairment and dementia.
The variety of the conclusion may be due to the different application of the criteria of the dementia or the cognitive impairment. Besides the demented patients, the degree of the cognitive decline of other cognition-impaired patients who fail to meet the above criteria could be measured by the yardsticks such as the mini-mental state examination MMSE score, Montreal cognitive assessment scale MoCA score, the abbreviated mental test, AD assessment scale-cognitive ADAS-Cog and so on.
Of course, there are some other measures which are mainly originated from the above yardsticks. For example, the six-item screener SIS is a brief cognitive function test which is derived from the MMSE and designed for either in-person or telephone administration.
In this review, we include the new evidence regarding the epidemiology of post-stroke cognitive impairment and discuss its potential risk factors.
The mechanisms that could underlie the cognitive impairment after stoke are discussed, including the impaired neuroanatomical structures and the cerebral microbleeds CMBs which may result in VCI, and the contribution of stroke to AD.
Finally, we critically review the present promising treatment to post-stroke cognitive impairment. Epidemiology Prevalence of post-stroke cognitive impairment The prevalence studies focus on the whole population who show the cognitive impairment after stroke.
Although these studies in community or hospital settings always fail to exclude the patients who have suffered the cognitive decline before the stroke, they have shown the seriousness of the problem. But the results of the studies vary for the difference between the countries, the races, and the diagnostic criteria. Recently, a study based on the cohort of first-ever stroke patients without pre-stroke dementia in France suggested that the frequency of the cognitive impairment 3-month after stroke was In America, the study on subjects from the Framingham Study suggested that In Asia, the study conducted by Yu et al.
The value of each sample was taken after submerging the pH probe in the water sample and holding for a couple of minutes to achieve a stabilized reading. After the measurement of each sample, the probe was rinsed with deionized water to avoid cross contamination among different samples. The probe was calibrated using a standard solution with a known conductivity.
The probe was submerged in the water sample and the reading was recorded after the disappearance of stability indicator. Each sample was poured in the sample holder and kept inside for a few minutes. After achieving the reading stability, the value was recorded. Therefore, the accuracy and precision of following methods are well approved and cited in the scientific literature.
A fixed volume of water sample was poured on a preweighed glass fiber filter of a specified pore size before starting the vacuum filtration process. The TDS of the water samples were determined by the gravimetric method.
The remaining mass of the residue represents the amount of TDS in a sample. Cold-vapor AAS method was applied in determination of Hg and for Sn direct air-acetylene flame method was used.
The presence of all ten heavy metals has been studied in all the water samples. The standard solution for each tested element was prepared according to its concentration and used to calibrate the system before analyzing each water sample. The results were recorded automatically on a computer connected with the AAS system. Result and Discussion 3. Measurement of pH relates to the acidity or alkalinity of the water.
A sample is considered to be acidic if the pH is below 7. Meanwhile, it is alkaline if the pH is higher than 7. Acidic water can lead to corrosion of metal pipes and plumping system. Meanwhile, alkaline water shows disinfection in water. The pH values of all the drinking water samples are found to be in the range between 7.
For MW sample, the measured pH is 7. This indicates that the manufacturer did not provide any inaccurate information on the label.
Physical-chemical parameters of drinking water samples in Perak state, Malaysia. Various physical-chemical parameter analysis of drinking water samples in Perak state, Malaysia.
Electrical Conductivity Electrical conductivity is the ability of any medium, water in this case, to carry an electric current.
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The presence of dissolved solids such as calcium, chloride, and magnesium in water samples carries the electric current through water. The measured conductivity values of all the drinking water samples are plotted in Figure 2 b. The results show that the measured conductivity of all water samples ranges from The lowest and highest conductivity values correspond to RO and MW samples, respectively. This can be explained as the reverse osmosis treatment technique is used to remove dissolved solids, turbidity, colloidal matters, and others, and thus it gives lowest conductivity value.
Similarly, it is expected to find high mineral contents in mineral water, which resulted in higher conductivity value Table 3. Moreover, according to Azrina et al. Scatena [ 38 ] explained the differences based on various factors such as agricultural and industrial activities and land use, which affect the mineral contents and thus the electric conductivity of the water.
Conductivity does not have direct impact on human health. It is determined for several purposes such as determination of mineralization rate existence of minerals such as potassium, calcium, and sodium and estimating the amount of chemical reagents used to treat this water [ 18 — 21 ]. High conductivity may lead to lowering the aesthetic value of the water by giving mineral taste to the water. For the industrial and agricultural activity, conductivity of water is critical to monitor.
Water with high conductivity may cause corrosion of metal surface of equipment such as boiler. It is also applicable to home appliances such as water heater system and faucets. Food-plant and habitat-forming plant species are also eliminated by excessive conductivity [ 7 — 13 ].
Turbidity Turbidity is the cloudiness of water caused by a variety of particles and is another key parameter in drinking water analysis.
It is also related to the content of diseases causing organisms in water, which may come from soil runoff. The turbidity results for all 10 drinking water samples studied are shown in Figure 2 c. The lowest turbidity values of 0. The mineral water, which was expected to be the cleanest water, thus had lowest turbidity values.
The results indicate that the turbidity of all the samples studied was below the maximum standard limit of 5 NTU. Water from RO dispenser machine is also expected to have low turbidity value due to the filtration system, which is possessed to ensure efficient removal of undesired solids and organisms from turbid water. The TSS values of all the drinking water samples studied are shown in Figure 2 d. This is because the sample collection points in these areas had filtration systems attached to the taps, thus removing all the suspended particles such as silt, clay, and other inorganic particles.
Figure 2 e shows TDS values for all 10 drinking water samples. Heavy Metals Analysis The presence of heavy metals in drinking water higher than a certain concentration can cause detrimental impacts on human health. Therefore, the analysis of heavy metals in drinking water is an important parameter, and most of the studies on drinking water quality involve investigation of heavy metals. Heavy metals analysis of drinking water samples in Perak state, Malaysia.
According to Hanaa et al. Moreover, it may be introduced by paints, pigments, plastic stabilizers, mining and smelting operations, and other industrial operations such as electroplating and fossil fuel, fertilizer, and sewage sludge disposal. This might be due to corrosion of galvanized steel pipe that is used for piping of water distribution over the area.
Similarly, Cd can also come from fittings with cadmium soldering [ 22 ]. There are no other sources of Cd as TRO is not near to any industry or waste disposal sites. The high concentration of Mg 0. The contamination of Cr, which is expected to be from industrial waste, is not applicable to any collected samples except for Ipoh IP.
Even for IP, the industries are located 3 km away and do not contain any steel or mill plants. However, it can be found due to erosion of natural deposits from the surrounding areas. The slight higher concentration of Pb in IP 0. The slight concentrations of Hg in samples may be due to erosion of natural deposits, which are abundantly available in these residential areas of Perak state. The other common sources of Hg can be the erosion of natural deposits, discharge of waste from refineries and related factories, and runoff from landfills and crops [ 10 — 13 ].
The IP is located near to a small industrial area, which can be the source of Hg despite the possible source of contamination from erosion of natural deposits.
The higher concentrations of As in the regions of IP and Seri Iskandar SI may be due to the chemical fertilizers used in the surrounding rice fields. Geographically, the IP is located near to Kinta small-medium industrial area, which may be causing the higher concentration of As in the analysed sample.
The other sources of As can be erosion of natural deposits, runoff from orchards, manufacturing of semiconductor, and waste runoff from glass and electronics production plants [ 19 — 21 ].At the Hospital - Funny Clip - Mr. Bean Official
In Malaysia, Perak state was known to be a land of minerals and tin-mining. Metal mining is found to be the second largest source of metal contamination in soil [ 41 ]. This includes metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, and Sn. These areas are found to be the ex-tin-mining area or near to a tin-mining area.
Rivers passing mining areas could carry with them the Sn and As. The metals can enter the water during the treatment process. Sn can also leach from Sn-Pb solder joints [ 42 ].