Society - Wikipedia
Corporate social responsibility is a type of international private business self- regulation. A study compared existing econometric studies of the relationship between Business ethics is the part of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility (PDF). A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) of " primitive", better/worse, or "progress" in. This approach is designed to create a mutually beneficial relationship between suppliers and The Walt Disney Company. Disney sourcing professionals seek.
Many companies produce externally audited annual reports that cover Sustainable Development and CSR issues "Triple Bottom Line Reports"but the reports vary widely in format, style, and evaluation methodology even within the same industry. Critics dismiss these reports as lip service, citing examples such as Enron 's yearly "Corporate Responsibility Annual Report" and tobacco companies' social reports. In South Africa, as of Juneall companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange JSE were required to produce an integrated report in place of an annual financial report and sustainability report.
Corporate social responsibility - Wikipedia
This requirement was implemented in the absence of formal or legal standards. One of the reputable institutions that capital markets turn to for credible sustainability reports is the Carbon Disclosure Projector CDP. Verification[ edit ] Corporate social responsibility and its resulting reports and efforts should be verified by the consumer of the goods and services.
Due to an increased awareness of the need for CSR, many industries have their own verification resources. The United Nations also provides frameworks not only for verification, but for reporting of human rights violations in corporate supply chains. Ethics training[ edit ] The rise of ethics training inside corporations, some of it required by government regulation, has helped CSR to spread.
The aim of such training is to help employees make ethical decisions when the answers are unclear. Organizations see increased employee loyalty and pride in the organization. This can include raising money for local charities, providing volunteers, sponsoring local events, employing local workers, supporting local economic growth, engaging in fair trade practices, etc.
Companies that ethically market to consumers are placing a higher value on their customers and respecting them as people who are ends in themselves. They do not try to manipulate or falsely advertise to potential consumers.
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This is important for companies that want to be viewed as ethical. Social license to operate[ edit ] Social License to Operate can be determined as a contractual grounds for the legitimacy of activities and projects company is involved in.
Unless a company earns and maintains that license social license holders may intend to block project developments; employees may leave the company for a company that is a better corporate citizen: Based on the Requisite Organization research of Dr. Elliott Jaques to achieve this goal a company needs to: Identify the business strategy and business objectives Identify the social license holders employees of a company, labour unions, local and national governments, communities, activist groups, etc.
Develop the Social License Development Strategy to remove the negative factors and ensure positive intention of all the social license holders to support all the business objectives of the company. Perform ongoing monitoring and quantitative measurement of changes in the Social License to Operate of the company Potential business benefits[ edit ] A large body of literature exhorts business to adopt non-financial measures of success e. The business case for CSR  within a company employs one or more of these arguments: Triple bottom line[ edit ] "People, planet and profit", also known as the triple bottom line, form one way to evaluate CSR.
Profit is the economic value created by the organization after deducting the cost of all inputs, including the cost of the capital unlike accounting definitions of profit.
Another criticism is about the absence of a standard auditing procedure. Potential recruits often consider a firm's CSR policy. CSR can also help improve the perception of a company among its staff, particularly when staff can become involved through payroll givingfundraising activities or community volunteering.
CSR has been credited with encouraging customer orientation among customer-facing employees. Several executives suggest that employees are their most valuable asset and that the ability to retain them leads to organization success.
Socially responsible activities promote fairness, which in turn generate lower employee turnover.
On the other hand, if an irresponsible behavior is demonstrated by a firm, employees may view this behavior as negative.
Proponents argue that treating employees well with competitive pay and good benefits is seen as a socially responsible behavior and therefore reduces employee turnover.
This interest is driven particularly by the realization that a positive work environment can result in desirable outcomes such as more favorable job attitudes and increased work performance. The authors noted that while developing and implementing a CSR strategy represents a unique opportunity to benefit the company.
The survey's authors also stated that employee engagement on CSR initiatives can be a powerful recruitment and retention tool. Conceptions[ edit ] Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit. The great apes have always been more BonoboHomoPan or less GorillaPongo social animalsso Robinson Crusoe -like situations are either fictions or unusual corner cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans, who fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of animal ethology.
According to anthropologist Maurice Godelierone critical novelty in society, in contrast to humanity's closest biological relatives chimpanzees and bonobosis the parental role assumed by the males, which supposedly would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom paternity is not generally determinable.
In order of increasing size and complexity, there are bandstribeschiefdomsand state societies. These structures may have varying degrees of political powerdepending on the culturalgeographicaland historical environments that these societies must contend with. Thus, a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture as other societies is more likely to survive than one in closer proximity to others that may encroach on their resources. A society that is unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will usually be subsumed into the culture of the competing society.
In sociology[ edit ] The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social common goals can thus be distinguished and considered.
Ant formicidae social ethology. Berger defines society as " Fried, a conflict theorist, and Elman Servicean integration theorist, who have produced a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories: Hunter-gatherer bands categorization of duties and responsibilities.
Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. Civilizationswith complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments. In addition to this there are: Humanityhumankind, upon which rest all the elements of society, including society's beliefs.
Virtual societya society based on online identity, which is evolving in the information age. Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of organization and control. This cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages. Villages grew to become towns and cities.
Cities turned into city-states and nation-states. This type of generosity can be seen in all known cultures; typically, prestige accrues to the generous individual or group. Conversely, members of a society may also shun or scapegoat members of the society who violate its norms.
Mechanisms such as gift-givingjoking relationships and scapegoatingwhich may be seen in various types of human groupings, tend to be institutionalized within a society. Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with it certain elements that could be detrimental to the population it serves. Some societies bestow status on an individual or group of people when that individual or group performs an admired or desired action.
This type of recognition is bestowed in the form of a name, title, manner of dress, or monetary reward.
Corporate social responsibility
In many societies, adult male or female status is subject to a ritual or process of this type. Altruistic action in the interests of the larger group is seen in virtually all societies. The phenomena of community action, shunning, scapegoating, generosity, shared risk, and reward are common to many forms of society.
Types[ edit ] Societies are social groups that differ according to subsistence strategiesthe ways that humans use technology to provide needs for themselves. Although humans have established many types of societies throughout history, anthropologists tend to classify different societies according to the degree to which different groups within a society have unequal access to advantages such as resources, prestige, or power.
Virtually all societies have developed some degree of inequality among their people through the process of social stratification, the division of members of a society into levels with unequal wealth, prestige, or power.
Sociologists place societies in three broad categories: Pre-industrial society In a pre-industrial society, food production, which is carried out through the use of human and animal laboris the main economic activity. These societies can be subdivided according to their level of technology and their method of producing food.
These subdivisions are hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural, and feudal. Hunting and gathering[ edit ] Main article: Hunter-gatherer society San people in Botswana start a fire by hand. The main form of food production in such societies is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals. Hunter-gatherers move around constantly in search of food. As a result, they do not build permanent villages or create a wide variety of artifactsand usually only form small groups such as bands and tribes.
However, some hunting and gathering societies in areas with abundant resources such as people of tlingit lived in larger groups and formed complex hierarchical social structures such as chiefdom. The need for mobility also limits the size of these societies. They generally consist of fewer than 60 people and rarely exceed Statuses within the tribe are relatively equal, and decisions are reached through general agreement. The ties that bind the tribe are more complex than those of the bands.
Leadership is personal—charismatic—and used for special purposes only in tribal society. There are no political offices containing real power, and a chief is merely a person of influence, a sort of adviser; therefore, tribal consolidations for collective action are not governmental. The family forms the main social unitwith most members being related by birth or marriage.
This type of organization requires the family to carry out most social functions, including production and education. Pastoral society Pastoralism is a slightly more efficient form of subsistence. Rather than searching for food on a daily basis, members of a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs.
Pastoralists live a nomadic life, moving their herds from one pasture to another. Because their food supply is far more reliable, pastoral societies can support larger populations. Since there are food surpluses, fewer people are needed to produce food. As a result, the division of labor the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities becomes more complex. For example, some people become craftworkers, producing toolsweaponsand jewelry.
The production of goods encourages trade.