The Duffy blood group - Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens - NCBI Bookshelf
Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD . The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature .. A study in Brazil of the protection against P. vivax offered by the lack of the Duffy antigen found no differential resistance to malaria vivax. The Duffy blood group antigen serves not only as blood group antigen, but also as malaria per year and is the most amply distributed human malaria in the world . mutation in the FYA allele, isolated or in association. Actually before discovering Duffy antigen, the scientists in the year ,from the Is there any relation between an man's Blood group and his digestion/immunity system. Why does people with O blood group are more prone to malaria?.
The number of municipalities at high risk, i. Sporadic autochthonic cases occurred in restricted focal areas. Often, infant mortality and morbidity are related to delay in establishing the correct diagnosis because of few clinical features. This promotes the fertilization process producing zygotes that become invasive and grow and divide thus producing thousands of invasive sporozoites. These migrate through the body and invade the salivary glands of female mosquitoes.
Females, when they feed again, inoculate sporozoites in the blood of man, which rapidly migrate into hepatocytes and transform into trophozoites in the liver where they mature and divide to form thousands of merozoites. The liver cells rupture releasing merozoites into the circulation, thereby initiating the blood cycle. In this phase, symptoms do not appear in the host.
In the blood cycle, the merozoites develop into trophozoites forming schizonts. This stage of the cycle is associated with clinical symptoms. After a period of asexual replication, some merozoites differentiate into gametocytes and become infective to mosquitoes. The combination of these factors establishes different transmission rates for the disease. Improvement of microscopy and the introduction of biological stains that identify the species, developmental stage, viability and quantification of parasites, have made this test simple, rapid and satisfactory in terms of its sensitivity and specificity.
Although the tests available today specifically differentiate P. Because of their convenience and simplicity, they are useful for screening and even diagnostic confirmation, especially in situations where the processing of a thick blood smears is complicated, such as in remote areas with difficult access to healthcare services and in regions with low incidence.
Because of its oxidizing character, primaquine can induce severe hemolytic anemia, even at the conventional dose of 0. Although effective, this extended regimen can explain the high number of cases of noncompliance and thus the appearance of relapse. This antibody was named anti-Fya, after the patient in question, Mr.
The CC and TT genotypes showed frequency of 0. In the locus, the G allele was found less frequently in Afro-Colombians 0. Regarding genotype distribution, the lowest frequency of heterozygote's was found in Afro-Colombians 0. Table 4 details the genotypic and allelic frequencies in each of the populations studied for the loci evaluated.
Meanwhile, in the Amerindian and Mestizo populations there is an excess of heterozygotes at locus In evaluating each locus according to the total population, it was observed that in the locus there is a deficit of heterozygotes while in locus there is an excess of them.
To confirm the above, genetic differences were compared through a tree "Neighbor Joining" NJ and the genetic distance of Cavalli-Sforza. A high degree of genetic differentiation was obtained among the three populations. This means that the gene flow between these two ethnic groups mixed is the smallest in the population structure of La Italia. The shortest distance was found between Amerindians and Mestizos 0. This is contrary to what happened in Amerindians and Mestizos who were predominantly GA genotype.
On the other hand, the Amerindians exhibited a frequency times greater of GG while Mestizos were times more frequently found with AA Fig. The TA haplotype was predominately found in Mestizos. Comparison of the 3 most probable haplotypes ge nerated Harlequin program. Analysis of association of some variables - On comparing the average number of episodes of malaria in the last year by diplotype and ethnicity, there was no statistically significant difference.
However, on analyzing the number of malaria episodes in the same period according to ethnicity, significant differences were found in Mestizos who had a higher average number of episodes of malaria in the last year vs.
Individuals with other diplotypes could be infected by P.
The diversity in the population as in the case of age and ethnic composition 25 could influence the presentation of asymptomatic parasitemia. Nonetheless, at least in the present study, no significant association was found between age and frequency of malarial infection in the differing ethnic groups, so that the relevance of the interaction between age-ethnicity-asymptomatic infections should be more widely explored. A predominance of the C allele at locus Fy- in Afro-Colombians was observed, but less frequently than those reported in African populations 11 Other investigators have reported low frequency of this allele in Colombian Mestizo populations This is probably due to the Afro- Colombian population has suffered a significant level of miscegenation.
Further analysis of the genotypes of locus 46 confirmed that Afro-Colombian and mixed ethnicity are not in the equilibrium of Hardy Weinberg. The frequency of the G allele in locus predominates in Amerindians, while the frequency of the A allele predominates in Afro-Colombians and Mestizos. Similar data have been reported in individuals from North America Caucasian-AmericansAfrican-Americans, Turkish individuals and Colombians, where the A allele predominates, in contrast to Asian-Americans and Hispanic-American individuals in general in which the G allele predominates 15 The relationship found between ethnicity and the Duffy genotype in position is probably due to Amerindians and Mestizos predominantly carrying the GA genotype, but Afro-Colombians mainly carrying the AA genotype.
These data differ from studies of the different ethnic groups in Papua, New Guinea where it was reported that the vast majority of individuals were GG.
The Afro-Colombian and Mestizo ethnic groups showed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium at locus ; a balance that has also been found in other locations in Turkey By contrast, the equilibrium of Hardy Weinberg was not detected in Amerindians as a consequence of excess heterozygotes.
The findings of Hardy Weinberg disequilibrium at the locus in the Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations, and in locus of the Amerindian population could be explained by the presence of inbreeding in each of the three populations and by their migratory history. This phenomenon could explain the absence of heterozygotes in La Italia, which was only fairly recently established i.
(PDF) Duffy blood group and malaria
Similarly, the disequilibrium that exists in loci in the Mestizo population, in which a deficit of heterozygote's is also observed, could be explained by the colonization of Antioquian populations and, in recent years, by the displacements from areas farther east, i.
In contrast, disequilibrium only exists in locus for the Amerindian population due to an excess of heterozygotes. Therefore, the populations differ genetically from one another using these markers. Additionally, evaluating the population structures by means of the genetic distance of Cavalli-Sforza confirms, in general, a high degree of genetic differentiation among populations of the three ethnic groups from the same geographical area.
The greatest difference is between Amerindians and Afro-Colombians and the least genetic distance is between Amerindians and Mestizos. Additionally, the distance between Amerindians and Mestizos is less than that observed among Amerindians and Afro-Colombians, meaning that Mestizos have a bit more of the Amerindian component than do Afro-Colombians. The above results indicate that although these populations are located in the same geographical area, there is a persistence of ethnic structure that reflects a high degree of inbreeding yet discrimination among the populations.
This confirms that this is the protector diplotype against P. However, the low frequency of infections by this species prevented the obtaining of significant results regarding the association between ethnicity and species, although P.
These results differ from those reported by Montoya et al, who noted a predominance of infection by P. The results deom the Duffy genotype and of this research confirm that, as in the region of the Brazilian Amazon 29 no FY- individual was found with infected by P. This contradicts that which was reported in Colombia in 16 and the latest reports from several countries in Africa 56. One explanation for the difference in results in the Colombian context may lie in the technical limitation of the serological technique for detecting the weak Fyx phenotype, as well as in the existence of different genetic variants of P.
These phenomena were not explored in this study. Future work in Colombia should clarify associations between infection from different variants of P.
Duffy antigen system - Wikipedia
Blood groups and malaria: Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms among malaria vivax patients in four areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plasmodium vivax infection among Duffy antigen-negative individuals from the Brazilian Amazon region: Plasmodium vivax clinical malaria is commonly observed in Duffy-negative Malagasy people. Duffy negative antigen is no longer a barrier to Plasmodium vivax--molecular evidences from the African West Coast Angola and Equatorial Guinea. Evidence for transmission of Plasmodium vivax among a duffy antigen negative population in Western Kenya.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary A. Vivax malaria in Mauritania includes infection of a Duffy-negative individual. Dinucleotide repeat in the 3' flanking region provides a clue to the molecular evolution of the Duffy gene.
Le Van Kim C. The Duffy blood group and malaria prevalence in Gambian West Africans. The resistance factor to Plasmodium vivax in blacks. The Duffy-blood-group genotype, FyFy.
Duffy antigen system
N Engl J Med. Duffy blood types and vivax malaria in Ethiopia. The global distribution of the Duffy blood group. Blood groups and malaria. Epidemiology of urban malaria in Quibdo, Choco. Antibody response to Plasmodium vivax antigens in Fy-negative individuals from the Colombian Pacific coast. From malaria to chemokine receptor: