Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are. Keywords: Education, Parent Child relationship and academic achievement I. Concept of academic achievement Home where the parents exhibit centre of. Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment Toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal might promote the academic success of one-only children. . The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between parental involvemen.
According to Sanaee career choice is one of the most important events in life that affects every aspect of human existence.
In the theories of career choice, factors affecting career choice are studied and help the individual to choose an appropriate job which leads to personal satisfaction and increase of the efficiency.
The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path
The results of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between self-concept and job satisfaction, as well as career self-concept and job satisfaction 9.
Mehrafza in a study examined the relationship between parenting styles and creativity and academic achievement of the students of grade three of high school and showed that there was a significantly positive relationship between the emotional atmosphere of the family, declining to the principles of democracy, and creativity.
Furthermore, there was a significantly negative relationship between the creativity and dictatorship principles and there was no statistically significant relationship between the emotional atmosphere of the family, declining to absolute freedom, and creativity Biabangard in a study examined the relationship of self-esteem and motivation with educational achievement among students of grade three of high school in Tehran.
The researcher found that there was a significant correlation between self-esteem, achievement motivation, and educational achievement, between self-esteem and achievement motivation, between self-esteem and educational achievement, and between achievement motivation and educational achievement.
There was no significant difference between self-esteem, achievement motivation, and educational achievement of both groups of male and female students of the fields of the Humanities and Experimental Sciences Kefayat conducted a study titled "Examination of the relationship of parenting styles and attitudes with creativity and its relationship with intelligence, educational achievement and progressivist behaviors of students of the first grade of high school in Ahvaz" and concluded that there was a negative correlation between the various parenting styles and creativity Regarding the study population, stratified random sampling method was used.
Library, the Internet, local and foreign papers and studying the theoretical principles of the subject were used for access to the records. In this study, the following questionnaires were used: Baumrind parenting style questionnaire Moqimi career path questionnaire The GPAs of senior students of various fields of study in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the academic year were used to determine the educational success.
A test is reliable if it is given to the same group of people for several times in a short time, and the results are consistent. After analyzing the data from the questionnaires, their reliability coefficient Cronbach's Alpha was approved. Regarding the Parenting Styles Questionnaire: Results students participated in the study, were male and were female. In fact, the majority of subjects were male students, i.
The majority of subjects were 21 to 25 years old The were significantly higher in favour of family situation can be regarded as punishment to their sons as compared to their comprehending three factors: Laible members in the family. Parents to revolt and disgust. Both excessive love and behaviour form Worell and Worell, affection and excessive neglect are not desired was used to assess the adolescents perceptions in the relationship between the child and of their relationships with parent on seven parents.
Both are the origin of difficulties dimensions viz. Hence, it support and rigid control were the most becomes very important to study the extent of consistent predictors of adolescent adjustment.
Parent child relationship reward, loving, object reward and neglecting scale developed by Harishchand Sharma are still lagging behind. Hence, the was used. He observed a significant investigator selected the following problem. The famous psychoanalyst Freud father-child relationship as well as mother- has contended that the personality of man is child relationship between high and low formed in this childhood and the period after achieving high school students in terms of that marks only its development.
In view of Protecting, Symbolic Punishment, Rejecting, the fact that the experiences, habits, etc. Sampling was done for the present Neglecting. The investigator visited various secondary IV.
These tests were administered on familiar with various research methods just the students in their respective institutions and like a sculptor who would probably not begin a strictly in accordance with the instructions carving without an image in mind, researcher provided in the manuals. Method refers to a systematic approach V. The research method provides description of The Functional concepts of the ten various steps of the plan of attack to be parent-child relationship dimensions were adopted in solving a research problem.
Hence operationally defined and adapted for it is very important for the researcher to quantitative measure through assessable employ right type of method. Statistical population of the research For the comparisons of father, mother- includes 1X class students of Govt. Hence both are equal in rejecting Table 1 shows that the Child Relationship the high and low achievers.
CR values for comparing high and low achievers on protecting dimension of father Object Punishment and mother-child relationship came out to be For comparing high and low achievers on 1. In the father and mother child the parents have protecting attitude towards relationship the mean values are also not the high and low achievers. Hence the parents give equal object punishment to both the groups. These values are not significant 0. Similarly the mean values at 0.
The for the dimension are also the same for both trends of the mean for this dimension show the groups and parents. This means that both that mother give more symbolic punishment o the father and mother are equally demanding the low achievers in comparison to fathers.
From these result it is deduced show that equal symbolic punishment is given to both high and Indifferent low achievers by both the parents. A fourth large-scale study that reported a positive relationship between PI and academic achievement was conducted by Keith et al. This widely cited structural analysis study attempts to establish causal relationships using a sample of about 22, 8th grade students.
This study uses the technique of structural equation modeling SEMwhich entails defining a causal model to which the data are fitted. Figure 3 shows these four variables and example topics from the NELS: Original four variables underlying the PI construct in the Keith et al. Singh,School Psychology Review, 22 3pp. Results showed that these four variables are not significantly correlated to one another, and thus PI is multidimensional.
In fact, when the structure and participation variables were removed and other variables added e. Singh,School Psychology Review, 22 3p. The student achievement variable on the right of Figure 4 was derived from scores from short standardized tests of reading, math, science, and social studies history, citizenship, and geographydeveloped for NELS by Educational Testing Service ETS.
However, Keith et al.
The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path
Additionally, Keith et al. While White and Asian students showed generally higher achievement than Black, Hispanic, and Native American students, what is interesting is that parents of Ethnicity 0 reported more PI than parents of Ethnicity 1 shown by the inverse relation between ethnicity and PI. Finally, the data for family socioeconomic status SES, reflected by the family background variable showed that higher SES was associated with higher student achievement.
Our fifth large-scale study, conducted by Chen [ 8 ], was similarly a structural analysis investigating students in different grade levels i. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to Hong Kong students in the three grade levels. Structural equation modeling SEM analysis revealed interesting findings regarding parental support. The first finding showed that the indirect relationship of the students' perceived PI to academic achievement was mediated by perceived academic engagement.
This finding, however, was significant only for 9th grade students. The second finding revealed that perceived PI was directly and negatively related to academic achievement for all grade levels but statistically significant only for the 10th grade students.
In short, a perceived PI appears to predict academic achievement, and b higher levels of perceived PI are associated with lower levels of achievement, especially for 10th graders in Hong Kong. In our final large-scale study, Sui-Chu and Willms [ 2 ] computed regression and factor analyses to predict mathematics achievement using PI factors i. All of the variables were significant at the level except for the nonsignificant effects of a number of parents in the home, and b home supervision e.
Of the PI factors, the largest predictor of mathematics achievement is again the degree to which parents and their children talk about school i. Limitations of Nonexperimental Research After reviewing the PI literature, it is worth noting some of the main limitations of PI research in conjunction with their possible ramifications.
These include the following: One observation from reviewing this literature concerns the need to be cautious about interpreting correlational data. For instance, we saw earlier that the variable parents checking homework is often negatively associated with student academic achievement. This is likely because parents tend to check homework more vigilantly when there are academic problems, making PI in the form of homework checking an effect rather than a cause of academic achievement.
Further, actually doing homework by the child has been shown to be positively associated with academic achievement [ 11 ]. In addition, there may be other mediating factors relating to PI effects on student achievement that have not yet been adequately researched. For example, as part of their research and analysis using structural modeling, Keith et al.
As shown in Figure 5PI is characterized as exerting its effect on student achievement via the mediating variable of homework, where more PI is associated with doing more homework, which in turn is associated with higher achievement. Also, according to this model, doing more homework is associated with less TV viewing. Relationship between PI and achievement with homework and television viewing as mediating variables. The literature we reviewed has paid little attention to possible interactions among classes of important variables.
In addition, most of the studies show that PI and its probable influence on achievement declines as children progress through school [ 540 ].
There are several possible reasons for this decline: Regarding the latter point, as students become older, they start to rely on peers for advice and support more than on their parents.
The fields of education and psychology appear to be adjusting to the challenge directed toward the more traditional view that parenting has a very large influence on children's development. What the emerging view will be remains to be seen. One possible view might be similar to the view expressed by Cohen [ 47 ], who argued that while both parent and peer influences are modest, the peer influence is smaller and parent influence is larger than estimated by Harris, who asserted that differences in parenting have essentially no lasting influence on how children turn out [ 44 ].
Even Harris [ 44 ] warns that her theory which does not attribute lasting parental influence is not intended to imply that children can get along without their parents. Thus, Harris affirmed the key role of parents in protection, care, and support of learning.
Citing the inability of correlational studies to determine causality, as well as the findings of twin and adoption studies, researchers have estimated the impact of PI variables on academic achievement as quite modest [ 4447 — 49 ]. Others have agreed that the influence of parents is modest but go on to assert that peer influence is likewise modest [ 47 ].
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