Relations between Charles II and Parliament - Document in A Level and IB History
The monarchy was restored, Charles II came to the throne and the Lords were by the House of Lords for claiming that Parliament was automatically dissolved. Charles II, byname The Merry Monarch, (born May 29, , But though the early years of tawdry dissipation have tarnished the romance of his adventures, not all and throughout his reign the House of Commons was to thwart the Although the Parliament voted the king an estimated annual income of. Charles II was the eldest son of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria. The English Parliament, led by Cromwell, stated that any announcement of Charles being crowned Charles arranged the marriage of his niece Mary to the Protestant Prince William of Orange in in Hamilton: Building America .
Yet many in Parliament were distinctly intolerant, and that served only to push him back toward Catholic sympathies nourished on the Continent. His mother, wife, favorite sister and brother James were all acknowledged Catholics; there were rumors that Charles had secretly converted, too.
Parliament feared—increasingly as the royal marriage failed to produce an heir—that a Catholic might yet bag the throne. Matters came to a head when Charles was forced to agree to a Test Act excluding all Roman Catholics from public office.
Three times between and he thwarted Parliament in attempts to pass an Exclusion Bill that would debar his brother from the Crown: Religious tensions were further inflamed by the hoax Popish Plot that warned of an imminent Catholic rebellion to put James on the throne, and the real Rye House Plot to murder Charles and crown his illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth.
In return for much-needed money that Parliament failed to provide him, he had agreed to openly declare himself Catholic and, using force if required, impose his will on his country—all at some unspecified future point. Two treaties had concluded the financial arrangement: Had the duplicity leaked out, civil war would have ensued. Ever the consummate actor, the King successfully dissembled. But was the puppet master Stuart or French?
When things went wrong, Charles made scapegoats of his ministers. His mentor, the Earl of Clarendon, took the blame for the unpopular Dutch war; the King also deceived and used his five advisers known as the Cabal. It was rumored at the time that it only succeeded because lords in the Upper House amused themselves by counting an exceedingly corpulent member as Charles II succumbed to a stroke, February 6,aged He died in the Roman Catholic faith.
Relations between Charles II and Parliament
Although he had failed to beget a legitimate heir, he left a near-absolute, solvent monarchy. England was enjoying peace while other European countries were at war; her seamen were building an Empire; the arts and sciences were in robust health.
The criticisms remain that Charles was unprincipled, prepared to sell his country and his religion to the French; he ducked and dived. But consider the alternatives: He came of age in Europe, a child of diplomatic intrigues, broken promises, and unfulfilled hopes.
His early years were unremarkable, but before he was 20 his conventional education had been completely overshadowed by the harsh lessons of defeat in the Civil War against the Puritans and subsequent isolation and poverty.
Thus Charles emerged into precocious maturity, cynicalself-indulgent, skilled in the sort of moral evasions that make life comfortable even in adversity. But though the early years of tawdry dissipation have tarnished the romance of his adventures, not all his actions were discreditable.
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But the sacrifice of friends and principles was futile and left him deeply embittered. The young king became a fugitive, hunted through England for 40 days but protected by a handful of his loyal subjects until he escaped to France in October His safety was comfortless, however.
He was destitute and friendless, unable to bring pressure against an increasingly powerful England. He persuaded his brother James to relinquish his command in the French army and gave him some regiments of Anglo-Irish troops in Spanish service, but poverty doomed this nucleus of a royalist army to impotence.
European princes took little interest in Charles and his cause, and his proffers of marriage were declined.
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The actual terms were to be left to a free parliament, and on this provisional basis Charles was proclaimed king in May Landing at Dover on May 25, he reached a rejoicing London on his 30th birthday. He was bound by the concessions made by his father in andbut the Parliament elected in was determined on an uncompromising Anglican and royalist settlement.
The Militia Act of gave Charles unprecedented authority to maintain a standing army, and the Corporation Act of allowed him to purge the boroughs of dissident officials.
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Other legislation placed strict limits on the press and on public assembly, and the Act of Uniformity created controls of education. Charles II entering London after the restoration of the monarchy inundated hand-coloured print. He was 12 when the Civil War began and two years later was appointed nominal commander-in-chief in western England. With the parliamentary victory he was forced into exile on the continent. He was in the Netherlands when, inhe learnt of his father's execution.King Charles I (1600-1649) - Pt 1/3
InCharles did a deal with the Scots and was proclaimed king. With a Scottish army he invaded England but was defeated by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester in He again escaped into exile and it was not until that he was invited back to England to reclaim his throne.